Analysis of the possibility of economically using products obtained from the liquid fraction in the thermal refining of biomass
Wojciech Stępień, Jan Łabętowicz, Tomasz Niedziński , Tadeusz Pęczek
The process of thermal refining of waste biomass is nowadays seen as an important element of a closed loop economy. Appropriate control of the process makes it possible to obtain many valuable products with applications in many areas of the economy. This paper discusses the application potential of selected products obtained during thermal refining from the water and oil fractions. The potential applications in areas such as food, pharmaceuticals, household chemicals and chemical synthesis are discussed. In addition, the potential use of the oil fraction itself in agriculture is discussed. The use of preparations based on a liquid fraction, the so-called ‘stickers’, for pre-harvest spraying of rape plantations to reduce seed drop, the possibility of producing preparations to control pests of fruit trees in leafless state was discussed, and the possibility of using a liquid fraction to produce soil adjuvants increasing biocidal activity as herbicides in agricultural crops was also presented.
In an experimental installation (demo scale) produced within the framework of a research project(link to project) by InnEco in cooperation with the Pro Civis Foundation, research was carried out on the Slow Thermal Biomass Refining- STBR process. The research used waste biomass from the agro-food industry (fruit stones, coconut shells, cereal bran) and the wood industry (wood chips, bark and conifer cones). As a result of the multi-stage extraction, dozens of liquid fractions (30 to 60) were extracted in a single process. Approximately 60% of these fractions are groups of non-flammable and water-soluble compounds. The second group, accounting for about 40% of the fractions, are oily and flammable substances, which are carbon-containing organic compounds.
The aim of this study is to point out, based on the analysis of research work carried out to date, possible directions for practical applications of the liquid fraction obtained from the STBR process. Research on the liquid fraction has been directed into two areas. In the first of these, (i) work was undertaken to extract from the liquid fraction those components that can be obtained in satisfactory quantities from raw materials that have been thermally refined in the experimental facility. To this end, the liquid fraction was subjected to detailed chromatographic analysis. The analytical work carried out made it possible to identify the chemical compounds present in the liquid fraction (aqueous and oil) of the individual substrates subjected to thermal refining, as well as to determine which of them are present in practically relevant quantities. Of particular interest were the monoterpenes as a group of compounds with high potential for practical applications. As a result of the study, several monoterpenes were identified and the potential for their practical applications was discussed. The second area (ii) reviews the directions of practical applications of the liquid fraction, mainly in agriculture, resulting from the chemical and physical properties of this fraction, as well as from its biocidal properties indicating the potential for applications in the protection of crop plants against bacterial and fungal infections.
I. Analysis of the possibility of economic use of the chemical compounds contained in the liquid-aqueous and oil fractions obtained from the slow thermal refining of waste biomass.
The analysis of the liquid fraction obtained from different types of waste biomass showed that in the aqueous part of the liquid fraction, irrespective of the type of biomass subjected to thermal refining, acetic acid and methyl acetate were always present in sufficiently large quantities to enable their easy separation. In the oil part of the liquid fraction, on the other hand, the compounds present in relatively large quantities were the monoterpenes pinene and limonene. Compounds present in smaller quantities, but high enough to be separated by further fractionation, included furfural, phenol, geraniol, camphor, benzeoic acid and its methyl ester, myrcene, benzene and ethylbenzene, ocymene, carene, cresol, nanone. The main directions of practical applications of the compounds present in the liquid – aqueous and oil fractions are discussed below.
Potential for practical applications of compounds of the aqueous liquid fraction.
Acetic acid is an organic compound commonly produced by acetic fermentation from ethyl alcohol. It has a wide range of applications in many economic areas. Of particular importance is its use in the food industry as an acidity regulator. It has preservative properties due to its ability to inhibit microbial growth. When consumed in small quantities, it has a positive effect on the human body. Studies have shown that it helps lower blood pressure and reduces blood glucose and cholesterol levels. In use, acetic acid is most often encountered in diluted form as food vinegar with an acetic acid concentration of 6-10%. For the chemical industry, it is used in concentrated form as acetic essence (70-80% acetic acid) and as glacial acetic acid (at 16 degrees C it solidifies to form transparent crystals, similar to ice crystals) (https://mednet.pl , https://magazyn.ceneo.pl ).
In the food industry, acetic acid in diluted form is used for; marinades, processed cheeses, salads and sauces. In the production of some cheeses, its addition enables the curdling of the milk proteins and allows the separation of the resulting lumps from the whey. In addition, acetic acid combined with soda makes it possible to obtain a fluffy dough structure. Due to its preservative properties, this acid is commonly added to foods and is abbreviated E 230. (https://wylecz.to ).
In cosmetics, acetic acid is used, among other things, in the treatment of nail fungus, warts, ear infections or is included in preparations used for skin burns. It is also used in parasitological preparations.
In the pharmaceutical industry, acetic acid is used in the production of antibacterial drugs or antibiotics. Among other things, it is used in the production of the popular drug -aspirin (https://portal.abszdrowie.pl).
In the textile industry, acetic acid is used to dye textiles and as a raw material for the production of synthetic fibres, among other things to produce artificial silk.
In heating technology, acetic acid is used for descaling in all kinds of boilers or heating systems (https://portal.abszdrowie.pl ).
In chemical synthesis, acetic acid has applications in the manufacture of cleaning agents, due to its bactericidal properties, and in low concentrations it is used as a contact herbicide for weed control. Acetic acid is an important raw material from which a number of chemical compounds with wide applications in the plastics industry are produced, such as cellulose acetate, chloroacetic acid, tetraphthalic acid or acetic anhydride (https://www.doz.pl ).
Cellulose acetate, chemically, is an ester of acetic acid and cellulose. It is obtained by treating cellulose with acetic acid or its anhydride in the presence of sulphuric acid or zinc chloride as catalysts. The resulting cellulose acetate is a colourless thermoplastic polymer that is resistant to abrasion and scratching. It has insulating, and anti-static properties and is flame retardant. It is widely used in the production of plastic accessories, and is used as a construction material for all kinds of handles, combs, eyeglass frames and anti-reflective materials (e.g. in sunglasses). Among other things, it is used to produce membranes for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, osmosis and reverse osmosis. Depending on the degree of acetylation (number of acetate residues), it is used in the manufacture of technical and electro-technical films. The compound is also used in the manufacture of printing inks and is incorporated into varnishes.
Chloroacetic acid is a derivative of acetic acid. It is mostly obtained from glacial acetic acid using acetic anhydride as a catalyst. This compound is widely used in the world for the production of drugs, pesticides. According to 2010 data, its production was 706 000 tonnes, half of which was produced in China and the rest in countries such as Germany, the Netherlands and the USA. One of the largest producers of this compound in Europe is the Dutch company AkzoNobel. Chloroacetic acid is most widely used in the production of carboxymethyl cellulose. It is a polymer – a derivative of cellulose – with applications in the food industry as a thickening agent, emulsifier, food fibre and anti-caking agent. The compound is also used in pharmaceutical preparations in the form of a sodium salt, which is used as a binder in the granulation of medicines. Thanks to the possibility of obtaining compounds with different degrees of polymerisation, it is possible to obtain different rates of release of the pure substance from tablets.
Tetraphthalic acid is widely used in the plastics industry. Acetic acid is used as a solvent in its formation reaction (oxidation of paraxylene in acetic acid as a solvent). It is used in the production of polyester fibres (e.g. elan), high tenacity polyamide fibres and dyes. It is a basic raw material for the production of a wide range of polyesters. Among other things, it is used as a raw material for the multi-tonne production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles). Orlen has one of the most modern installations for the production of tetraphthalic acid in Włocławek (https://www.doz.pl ).
Acetic anhydride can be obtained by condensation of acetic acid. It has applications as an acetylating agent for the production of such compounds or products as; acetylsalicylic acid, cellulose acetate, synthetic fibres, polyvinyl acetate, dyes, explosives, and heroin. Due to the latter two uses, acetic anhydride is on the list of substances under turnover control.
Methyl acetate is chemically a methyl ester of acetic acid. It is characterised by a characteristic fruity odour and is toxic. Methyl acetate vapours form an explosive mixture with air. It is mainly used in industry as a solvent and intermediate for organic synthesis.
In the paint and varnish industry, methyl acetate is widely used as a common solvent for nitro paints and varnishes, celloid and phenolic and alkyd resins. In addition, it is used as a solvent for acetyl cellulose. It is a popular paint remover.
In the production of artificial leather, methyl acetate is an important raw material and is also used in the production of leather adhesives and celluloid. https://pol-aura.pl.
Potential for practical applications of liquid-oil fraction compounds.
On the basis of the quantitative analysis and evaluation of the potential for practical applications of monoterpenes obtained in the course of the research work carried out, the following six monoterpenes were considered the most promising: ocymene, pinene, camphor, limonene. geraniol and myrcene.
Ocymen – are a group of acyclic monoterpenes occurring in three isomeric forms as; alpha-cymene, beta-cymene, allo-cymene. They are commonly found as natural constituents of essential oils of plants. They are found in oils such as lavender oil and calendula oil, among others. Ocymene is characterised by a strong aroma described as floral and woody or woodsy. Because of its aromatic properties, ocymene is used in the perfume industry. It is also added as a fragrance ingredient in soaps, shampoos and cleaning products. It has also been noted that the smell of ocymene is extremely disliked by insects, which has been used practically – it is present in insect repellents. The compound has also been shown to have antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties, indicating its potential for medical applications.
Pinene – a chemical compound belonging to the group of bicyclic monoterpenes. It has two structural isomers alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, which differ slightly from each other. Both are found in conifers and other forest trees. They are also present in the essential oils of other plants among others found in hemp. The biological function of pinene is to support the plants’ natural defences by repelling insects with its distinct aroma. The aromas of the two isomers differ slightly. The aroma of alpha-pinene is described as similar to pine or rosemary, while beta-pinene gives off an aroma similar to hops or basil. Both pinenes, as shown in many studies, have properties with great potential for practical applications. They show properties; antiseptic, warming, choleretic and diuretic. They have found a wide range of applications in medicine, pharmacy, the cosmetic industry – especially in perfumery as artificial aromas, in household chemistry and even in the fuel industry as biofuels. In medicine, they are used as antibacterial and antifungal agents and as ingredients in warming ointments. In household chemicals, they are used as air fresheners, ingredients in furniture varnishes, floor polish and bathroom cleaners. They are also used in preparations used to repel mosquitoes.
Camphor (Camphor) – An organic chemical compound from the group of bicyclic monoterpenes with a characteristic pungent odour. It is naturally extracted from the wood of the camphor cinnamon tree, which grows in Asia (China and India). Today, camphor is produced synthetically on a large scale, including from alpha-pinene extracted from the wood of coniferous plants. Camphor has a wide range of applications in different areas of the economy. In medicine, it is used to make warming ointments for external use, and has applications in the perfume industry for fragrance compositions. It is also used in industry for the plasticisation (softening) of celluloid, for the production of varnishes. Due to its intense odour, it is also used as an anti-moth agent.
Limonene – is a monocyclic hydrocarbon from the group of monoterpents. It has three isomeric forms: D-limonene (responsible for the characteristic smell of lemons as it is mainly found in its peel), L-limonene (found in mint oil) and D,L-Limonene (a component of pine needle oil). All three forms of limonene have similar properties. In addition to its aromatic properties, limonene also has antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties. These properties make it widely used (i) in the cosmetic industry as an ingredient in creams, as it inhibits the activity of the enzyme elastase, thus preventing the degradation of the elastin protein, which together with collagen is responsible for the firmness and elasticity of the skin, (ii) in the perfume industry (in concentrations of 0, 005-2%), ((iii) as a fragrance and flavouring agent in food technology, (iv) as a fragrance component in household products as an ingredient in detergents and air fresheners, (v) as a cleaning agent in the electronics and printing industries (in high concentrations), (vi) as a solvent in paints and varnishes. In addition, preparations with limonene in capsule form are commercially available as extracts from the peels of oranges and lemons.
Geraniol – is an unsaturated terpene alcohol belonging to the monoterpenes. It is found in the essential oils of many plants. Among others, it is the main component of rose oil, geranium oil and lemon oil. In addition to its aromatic properties (sweet floral scent) – it also exhibits a number of other properties that have determined its wide practical use. A number of studies have demonstrated its important effects; (i) insecticidal, (ii) antibacterial and antifungal, (iii) anticancer.
Insecticidal properties are primarily insect repellent properties. Geraniol is therefore a natural repellent and has found wide use as an ingredient in biocidal and insect repellent preparations. It is an ingredient in candles, diffusers and sprays for repelling mosquitoes and blackflies, an ingredient in tick repellents, lice and flea repellents and an ingredient in body gels. It is worth noting that since September 2015, the Biocidal Products Regulation has been in force in the European Union, which significantly regulates the trade and distribution of such products.
Antibacterial and antifungal properties. A number of studies have demonstrated its bactericidal activity against a number of pathogenic bacteria including Euscherichia, Streptococcus and Salmonella. For this reason, geraniol is a component of many aerosol preparations used in household chemistry for disinfection purposes, where it shows satisfactory efficacy in relatively low concentrations of approx. 0.0025%.
Anticancer properties. A number of studies have demonstrated the anticancer activity of geraniol, which has proved particularly effective against a group of intestinal cancers. The mechanism of its anticancer action is related to the stimulation of cancer cell death through the down-regulation of the Bci-2 protein, one of the main promoters of the cancer process.
The versatile properties of geraniol make it one of the monoterpents with the widest practical use. In addition to biocidal preparations, in which it is the primary ingredient, geranium oils are commercially available for a variety of uses.
Myrcene (beta-myrcene) – is an unsaturated hydrocarbon of natural origin. It has extremely strong aromatic properties – it is a component of many essential oils of plants (e.g. pine, caraway, dill, laurel, hemp, sage, ginger). It has a characteristic aroma described as earthy or musky. Its aroma is also described as similar to that of cloves. As a pure substance, it is used in the pharmaceutical and perfume industries. It is the raw material for the production of substances such as; menthol, citral, citronellal, citronellal, nerol. Myrcene-containing oils exhibit soothing, calming and relaxing effects. Myrcene is present in particularly high amounts in all cannabis species and gives them a spicy earthy aroma with a hint of clove. Hemp preparations containing myrcene are present in the online trade. They are sold under the names; (i) hemp oils with varying concentrations of myrcene (from 3 to 15 per cent), (ii) hemp paste, or (iii) hemp capsules. In addition, myrcene shows great therapeutic potential for anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
II. Analysis of the potential for economic use of the liquid fraction in agriculture using its physical and biocidal properties.
The analysis of the physical properties of the liquid fraction obtained from the slow thermal refining of biomass makes it possible to propose possibilities for its practical use in the production of preparations with agricultural applications. Three such directions are proposed below.
Soil adjuvant based on a liquid fraction extracted from the STBR process. The liquid fraction extracted from the STBR process contains chemical compounds with properties that reduce the surface tension of the liquid, suggesting that it could be used to produce soil adjuvants that increase the biocidal efficacy of herbicides in agricultural crops. In modern agriculture, the addition of adjuvants to foliar herbicides is a standard benefit expressed as a significant enhancement of the action of foliar herbicides. Their effectiveness is well documented from a scientific point of view and appreciated by farmers. They ensure that as many droplets of the chemical plant protection product as possible are retained on the leaf surface by lowering the surface tension of the liquid and facilitating the penetration of the active substance into the plant cells. This results in a significant improvement in their performance, especially under adverse weather conditions (drought or excessive rainfall) and when hard water is used to prepare the spray. Experience with the use of adjuvants to improve the performance of foliar plant protection products has led to an extension of their use for soil herbicides, whose effectiveness is strongly dependent on weather conditions and soil moisture. Today, adjuvants are increasingly being added to soil herbicides. Research in this area has shown their significant effectiveness in supporting the biocidal effect of soil herbicides.
Factors determining the effectiveness of soil herbicides. Soil herbicides that are applied by spraying on the soil surface, in order to demonstrate their efficacy against weeds, should cover the soil surface as thoroughly as possible, forming a kind of uniform microfilm-like film on the soil surface. Such thorough coverage of the soil surface and the tubercles present in it ensures a high probability of contact between emerging weeds and the herbicide active ingredient. In addition, it is important for the effective action of soil-applied herbicides that a certain proportion of the active ingredient penetrates to a shallow depth into the soil and enters the weed germination zone (0-5 cm). In this way, the herbicide can already act in the first stage of weed germination – the seed swelling stage. The most important factor ensuring the effective action of a soil-applied herbicide is the moisture status of the soil. A lack or shortage of moisture is the most common reason for poor activity of soil-applied herbicides. However, excessive rainfall occurring shortly after herbicide application is also a factor that reduces herbicide effectiveness due to the risk of leaching of the active substance from the soil surface and weed germination zone. This danger is particularly true on light soils.
Adjuvants as a way to prevent reduced efficacy of soil herbicides. Adjuvants demonstrate their effectiveness in supporting the biocidal effect of herbicides primarily under adverse conditions such as drought or excessive rainfall. Adjuvants ensure tight coverage of the soil surface by the herbicide liquid even under drought conditions, while ensuring penetration of soil tubercles. Conversely, under conditions of excessive rainfall occurring after herbicide spraying, they prevent deeper movement of the herbicide beyond the weed germination zone. Adjuvants therefore help to stabilise the biocidal effect of herbicides over a wider spectrum of soil moisture, increasing the likelihood of germinating weeds coming into contact with the chemical contained in the herbicide formulation. Chemical tests carried out so far at the Institute of New Chemical Syntheses in Puławy indicate that oil compounds contained in the liquid fraction obtained in the STBR experimental facility exhibit physico-chemical properties justifying their use as soil adjuvants supporting the action of herbicides. In order to confirm these properties, it is necessary to carry out appropriate agricultural research on the effectiveness of adjuvants prepared on the basis of the oil fraction and to determine the distribution of the herbicide with the tested adjuvant in the surface layers of the soil, as well as to carry out measurements of the movement of the herbicide with the tested adjuvant after a controlled rainfall, e.g. 15 or 20 mm, at time intervals of several hours. In addition, studies should be carried out on the basis of which a list should be drawn up of the active substances of the herbicides with which the adjuvant proposed for practical use is mixed. These studies should also take into account the main herbicide active substances used in the main agricultural crops such as e.g.; (i) winter wheat; chlorosulfuron, chlorothaluron, diflufenican, (ii) maize; isoxaflutole, flufenacet, metolachlor-S, mesatrion, (iii) winter rape; quinmerac, chromazone, dimethenamid, (iv) potatoes: chloromazone, metolachlor.
Conducting further research in this area will allow the development of a family of new adjuvants based on the waste pyrolysis process.
A pyrolysis oil-based pest control preparation for leafless state.
Oil extracted from the liquid fraction produced by the pyrolysis of organic waste can be the basis for developing a formulation to control overwintering forms of pathogens on trees and shrubs in leafless condition. Tree and shrub pathogens go into dormancy at the end of the growing season and their spore forms overwinter in cracks in the bark and any nooks and crannies among the branches. In the pre-spring (end of February – beginning of March), when the air temperature rises above 5 degrees Celsius, the pests awake from their winter dormancy, their vital activity gradually increases and they prepare for feeding. This pre-spring period, when cultivated trees and shrubs are still leafless after their winter dormancy, is the right time to take preventive action to reduce pathogen populations.
Mechanism of action of liquid fraction preparations from the STBR process. For the reduction of pathogen populations, in addition to chemical plant protection products, preparations obtained from the STBR process are used in the form of spraying, which should be carried out in the pre-spring when the larvae of many dangerous pests are hatching from overwintering eggs. The mechanism of action of the preparations is to cover the surface of trees and shrubs with a thin layer. The leafless state allows the product to reach the overwintering sites of the pests and cover their spores with a thin oil film, which blocks the air from reaching the eggs and the pest larvae that hatch from them. In this way, the fistulae of the eggs are sealed, so to speak, which prevents air from reaching the developing larvae inside, which die. Oil-based formulations therefore have a contact effect on pests and only a superficial effect on plants.
Scope of application of oil preparations. Spraying with an oil-based preparation is recommended on deciduous fruit trees and shrubs that leaf out during the winter, as well as on conifers. Plants to be sprayed with oil-based products include in particular: apple trees, pear trees, plum trees, hawthorn, arborvitae and conifers such as yew, spruce, fir and pine. There are pests on these plants that can be effectively controlled with oil preparations. These mainly include the overwintering forms of the following pests: aphids, spider mites, leafhoppers and leafminers.
It is worth noting that in relation to conifers, oil preparations, in addition to destroying overwintering forms of pests, protect the plants from browning. Browning is an undesirable effect that reduces the ornamental value of conifers, which often occurs in the amateur cultivation of these plants. This is caused by the physiological drought that often occurs in the pre-winter. The plants cannot take up water from the still-frozen soil with their roots, and evaporation of water from the plant surface already takes place through transpiration. The use of oil preparations in this period allows the plant surface to be covered with a fine oil film, which, by gently coating the shoots and needles of the plants, significantly reduces evaporation of water from them.
Safety of oil preparations. Spraying with oil preparations is considered an ecological treatment that is fully safe for humans and animals. Liquid oil spraying does not contaminate the soil or aquatic environment and has no adverse effects on living organisms. In addition, it is worth noting that these formulations are applied in relatively low concentrations of 1-2%. It is also safe for beneficial insects as their larvae usually overwinter among the dried leaves of trees and shrubs on the ground and in buildings.
The evaluation of the properties of the oil fraction obtained from the thermal refining of biomass gives good reason to consider the possibility of preparing an oil preparation for use in orchards to control leafless pests and a preparation against darkening of conifers. To this end, it is necessary to extract experimentally from the oil fraction obtained in the STBR plant, those oil fractions which, in combination with a suitable emulsifier, will provide good water solubility. Experiments should then be carried out on selected plants using spraying of the formulations produced and their effectiveness should be evaluated in comparison with standard oil formulations found on the market.
Bonders based on selected oil fractions extracted by the STBR process. The oil fraction obtained during the STBR process contains a wide spectrum of different oil compounds with different properties. It is possible to extract oils with parameters that meet the requirements for their suitability for use as seed pod binders – protecting against spontaneous seed shedding. It is also possible to use a fraction of the oil to produce a preparation that protects against grain sprouting in the ears.
Spray sealers are oil-based preparations which, when dissolved in water (with the addition of an emulsifier) and sprayed on the surface of the crop, form a thin film on the surface of the pods or husks, limiting the ability of the pods or husks to swell. This coating limits the penetration of water from rainfall or dew into the pods. This prevents the organs from drying out too quickly which allows them to dry out naturally slowly. The cause of the pods bursting is the rapid changes in moisture they are subjected to during the ripening period during rainy weather and under conditions of high canopy moisture. These organs swell when exposed to moisture and then begin to shrink during dry weather and under high temperature conditions. Regularly repeated phenomena of shrinking and swelling of the siliques lead to their opening along the seam and uncontrolled seed shedding. In the last days before harvest, the increase in seed biomass is particularly high, reaching several tens of kg/day, so losses due to shedding can be significant. On average, these losses can potentially reach 10-20% of the crop under unfavourable weather conditions. Many seed-bearing plants, especially oilseed rape plants, have a natural tendency to shed seeds. To date, there are no varieties resistant to this undesirable phenomenon. Shellers limit water penetration into the seed pods and thus reduce swelling by preventing rapid changes in their moisture content.
Analysis of the properties of the oil fraction obtained during the Slow Thermal Refining of biomass from food and wood industry waste suggests that several oil fractions suitable for the production of this type of preparation can be selected from it. Their efficacy would need to be tested in close vegetative experiments with oilseed rape and peas under conditions of simulated variable moisture content maintained at specific time intervals, simulating weather conditions conducive to canopy breakage.
Slow Thermal Biomass Refining (STBR) of waste is increasingly seen as an important part of the circular economy. However, the main focus to date has been on the use of biocarbon as the most readily available pyrolysis product. Many research works carried out in this area have shown that if the process of thermal refining of biomass is managed properly, by slowing it down and lowering the process temperature, it is possible to obtain a liquid fraction in a satisfactory quantity and with a very rich spectrum in terms of chemical composition. From this fraction, significant quantities of valuable products can be obtained, which have applications in many areas of the economy.
An analysis of the potential for practical applications of the aqueous and oily liquid fraction obtained from the slow thermal refining of biomass, carried out in this study, shows that the components of the aqueous fraction such as acetic acid and its derivatives and methyl acetate have the greatest potential for practical applications, while monoterpenes are the most important group among the components of the oil fraction.
The most important monoterpenes that can be obtained by pyrolysis of waste biomass include: ocymene, pinene, camphor, limonene, geraniol, miracene. These are compounds, as attempted to demonstrate in this study, with a wide variety of uses, which creates a wide range of possibilities for choosing a specific direction for their practical applications. Chemical compounds isolated in the liquid fraction obtained in the process of
The potential applications of the components of the aqueous and oil fractions in such areas as the food industry, pharmaceutical industry, household chemistry, paints and varnishes industry and chemical synthesis were indicated.
In addition, the potential use of the oil fraction itself in agriculture was indicated. The possibility of producing and using preparations based on oil fractions, the so-called ‘sticking agents’, for spraying rape plantations before harvest in order to reduce seed drop, the possibility of producing preparations to control pests of fruit trees in leafless state was also discussed, as well as the possibility of using the oil fraction to produce soil adjuvants increasing the biocidal effect of herbicides in agricultural crops.
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